Distribution of Flora & Fauna in Indonesia with Pictures IncludedDilihat: kali
Biodiversity in Indonesia is due to the Indonesian region consists of many islands, besides Indonesia is located in the tropics which has 2 seasons alone. This is what manjadikan tropical areas have higher biodiversity than subtropical regions (temperate climate) and the polar regions (polar climate).
For comparison of biological keanekaragamah example, in the area of the same, if the tropical rain forest was found was found about 300 species of trees, the forest temperate climate (subtropical) found only one or two types of pohohn. Therefore, Indonesia has the highest biodiversity in the world, in addition to Brazil and Zaire.
The high biodiversity in Indonesia shows that Indonesia is rich with flora and fauna. Estimated wealth of flora in Indonesia there are more than 400 species of trees of commercial value (economic) and approximately 25,000 species of flowering plants. In addition, Indonesia also has about 4,000 species of about 12,000 species of ferns in the world, about 4,000 to 12,000 species of about 47,000 species of fungi in the world, and has approximately 3,000 species of about 15,000 species of mosses and liverworts in the world.
Indonesian faunal diversity is also very high. Proven Indonesia ranked first in the number of species of mammals of the world, which is about 515 species, among which there are 185 species of endemic and butterflies and birds of about 121 species, ranking third for reptiles about 600 species, ranking fourth for birds around 1,520 of whom there are more of the 380 endemic species and ranks fifth for amphibians about 270 species.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of certain living creatures in certain environments on earth. Distribution of flora and fauna are determined by geographic location, such as altitude, latitude and climatic conditions, such as rainfall, temperature, and light radiation. Based on the fauna and flora, biogeography can be divided into two, namely the spread of animal and plant distribution.
Based on the flora and fauna, biogeography can be divided into two, namely the distribution of plant and animal distribution.
Flora (plants) covering a particular region called vegetation. Distribution of flora is determined by geological factors, geographical (such as altitude and latitude) and precipitation. The higher somewhere above sea level and located further away from the latitude, where the temperature decreases. Every increase in altitude of 100 meters above sea level and the increase in the latitude of 1º, the regional temperature will drop 5ºC.
Various kinds of vegetation and characteristics as follows.
1) Tundra, has the characteristics of grass vegetation and lichens (Lichenes) and found in Scandinavia, Russia, Siberia and Canada.
2) Taiga, have the characteristics of rain forest vegetation needles (conifers) and found in Scandinavia, Alaska, Canada and Siberia.
3) Forest molt (4 seasons), has the characteristics of forest vegetation is green in the summer and shed its leaves in the winter. Contained in temperate zones, such as Europe, parts of Asia and the Americas.
4) Grassland, has the characteristics of the vegetation without trees, plants such as grasses (Graminae). Contained in the Hungarian region, North America, Argentina and southern Russia.
5) Vegetation desert, has the characteristics of the vegetation with the number of trees that grow very little is drought resistant plant species (Xerophyte), flowering and fruiting in a short time (efermer). Contained in the Gobi desert region (PRC), the Sahara desert (North Africa), Kalahari desert (South Africa)
6) Sabana, has the characteristics of grassland vegetation and trees. Found in parts of Asia, Australia and Indonesian.
7) Tropical rainforests, have characteristics of evergreen vegetation, tall trees, species very much, there are plants that stick (epiphytes) and other tree climbing plant (liana). Found in parts of Asia, Africa, Indonesia, and South America.
8) The mangrove forests, has the characteristics of vegetation roots of breath due to poor soil and water of oxygen, for example Mangroves (Rhizipora), firewood (Avicinea) and Sonneratia / drought resistant plant species (Xerophyte). Found in tropical and subtropical regions in the tidal zone where the ramps on the beach.
9) Forest moss, has characteristics moss and vegetation found in mountainous areas.
Historically, the western Indonesian fused with eastern Asia and Indonesia together with the Australian continent. So it is not surprising that animals and plants in western Indonesia are similar to animals and plants in the Southeast Asian or oriental. Animals and plants in eastern Indonesia are similar to animals and plants are located in areas biography of the Australian continent.
Based on the zone, then there are 3 regions distribution of fauna in Indonesia.
1. Fauna Asiatis (oriental)
The area includes parts of western Indonesia region of Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and Bali. Fauna Asiatis shows similarities with Asian fauna. Here there are mammals (mammals) are large, such as elephant, buffalo, rhino and tiger. Another example is the same kind as the Sumatran elephant Indian elephant. Rhinoceros found in India, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Java. Fauna Indonesia western region is often called the Sunda Shoal fauna. The types of fauna in the western part of Indonesia can be seen in the following table.
2. Fauna Australis
This region is often called the Sunda region Shoal fauna. Covers fauna found in the eastern part of the Indonesian Island of Papua and the Aru Islands. The fauna of this area is similar to the Australian fauna. Marsupial animals such as wallabies (kangaroos) and various birds found in Papua. Tree kangaroos in Papua are also found in Australia. While birds of paradise in Papua are also found in Papua New Guinea and Australia.
3. Fauna Transition
The area includes Sulawesi, Maluku and Nusa Tenggara whole. Asiatis types of fauna and fauna are also Australis fauna species that are not on both. For example such as dwarf buffalo, hog deer in Sulawesi and Komodo dragons on Komodo Island.
Examples of other fauna, among others, hog deer, dugongs, tarsiers, monkeys, black, cows, bulls, and horses. Reptiles include lizards, crocodiles, turtles and snakes. Bird species include gods, king prawns, bee-eaters, and hornbills.
Thus a glimpse of Distribution Flora and Fauna in Indonesia, continue to increase the knowledge biologimu, may be useful.